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Ancient cultures saw patterns in the heavens that resembled people, animals or common objects — constellations that came to represent figures from myth, such as Orion the Hunter, a hero in Greek mythology.
Astronomers now often use constellations in the naming of stars. The International Astronomical Union, the world authority for assigning names to celestial objects, officially recognizes 88 constellations.
Usually, the brightest star in a constellation has "alpha," the first letter of the Greek alphabet, as part of its scientific name. The second brightest star in a constellation is typically designated "beta," the third brightest "gamma," and so on until all the Greek letters are used, after which numerical designations follow.
A number of stars have possessed names since antiquity — Betelgeuse , for instance, means "the hand or the armpit of the giant" in Arabic. It is the brightest star in Orion, and its scientific name is Alpha Orionis.
Also, different astronomers over the years have compiled star catalogs that use unique numbering systems. The Henry Draper Catalog, named after a pioneer in astrophotography, provides spectral classification and rough positions for , stars and has been widely used of by the astronomical community for over half a century.
The catalog designates Betelgeuse as HD Since there are so many stars in the universe, the IAU uses a different system for newfound stars.
Most consist of an abbreviation that stands for either the type of star or a catalog that lists information about the star, followed by a group of symbols.
The J reveals that a coordinate system known as J is being used, while the and are coordinates similar to the latitude and longitude codes used on Earth.
In recent years, the IAU formalized several names for stars amid calls from the astronomical community to include the public in their naming process.
The IAU formalized 14 star names in the "Name ExoWorlds" contest , taking suggestions from science and astronomy clubs around the world.
Then in , the IAU approved star names , mostly taking cues from antiquity in making its decision. The goal was to reduce variations in star names and also spelling "Formalhaut", for example, had 30 recorded variations.
However, the long-standing name "Alpha Centauri" — referring to a famous star system with planets just four light years from Earth — was replaced with Rigel Kentaurus.
A star develops from a giant, slowly rotating cloud that is made up entirely or almost entirely of hydrogen and helium.
Due to its own gravitational pull, the cloud behind to collapse inward, and as it shrinks, it spins more and more quickly, with the outer parts becoming a disk while the innermost parts become a roughly spherical clump.
According to NASA, this collapsing material grows hotter and denser, forming a ball-shaped protostar.
When the heat and pressure in the protostar reaches about 1. Nuclear fusion converts a small amount of the mass of these atoms into extraordinary amounts of energy — for instance, 1 gram of mass converted entirely to energy would be equal to an explosion of roughly 22, tons of TNT.
The life cycles of stars follow patterns based mostly on their initial mass. These include intermediate-mass stars such as the sun, with half to eight times the mass of the sun, high-mass stars that are more than eight solar masses, and low-mass stars a tenth to half a solar mass in size.
The greater a star's mass, the shorter its lifespan generally is. Objects smaller than a tenth of a solar mass do not have enough gravitational pull to ignite nuclear fusion — some might become failed stars known as brown dwarfs.
An intermediate-mass star begins with a cloud that takes about , years to collapse into a protostar with a surface temperature of about 6, F 3, C.
After hydrogen fusion starts, the result is a T-Tauri star , a variable star that fluctuates in brightness. This star continues to collapse for roughly 10 million years until its expansion due to energy generated by nuclear fusion is balanced by its contraction from gravity, after which point it becomes a main-sequence star that gets all its energy from hydrogen fusion in its core.
The greater the mass of such a star, the more quickly it will use its hydrogen fuel and the shorter it stays on the main sequence.
After all the hydrogen in the core is fused into helium, the star changes rapidly — without nuclear radiation to resist it, gravity immediately crushes matter down into the star's core, quickly heating the star.
This causes the star's outer layers to expand enormously and to cool and glow red as they do so, rendering the star a red giant. Helium starts fusing together in the core, and once the helium is gone, the core contracts and becomes hotter, once more expanding the star but making it bluer and brighter than before, blowing away its outermost layers.
After the expanding shells of gas fade, the remaining core is left, a white dwarf that consists mostly of carbon and oxygen with an initial temperature of roughly , degrees F , degrees C.
Since white dwarves have no fuel left for fusion, they grow cooler and cooler over billions of years to become black dwarves too faint to detect.
Our sun should leave the main sequence in about 5 billion years. A high-mass star forms and dies quickly. These stars form from protostars in just 10, to , years.
While on the main sequence, they are hot and blue, some 1, to 1 million times as luminous as the sun and are roughly 10 times wider. When they leave the main sequence, they become a bright red supergiant, and eventually become hot enough to fuse carbon into heavier elements.
After some 10, years of such fusion, the result is an iron core roughly 3, miles wide 6, km , and since any more fusion would consume energy instead of liberating it, the star is doomed, as its nuclear radiation can no longer resist the force of gravity.
When a star reaches a mass of more than 1. Learn how to buy and send Stars, where Stars are available and more. How do I use Stars to support a creator on Facebook?
Discover new content creators while watching a live video and show your support with Stars. If a creator is participating in Stars, you can purchase and send Stars while watching the live video.
Keep in mind, not all video creators have Stars enabled. When watching a video from a creator who participates in Stars, you will see a next to Write a comment Learn how to send Stars to a video creator during a Facebook live.
Was this information helpful? How do I buy Stars to send to a video creator on Facebook? Stars are currently available on select live, live gaming or on demand videos.
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If you are watching a live video with Stars enabled:. Visit a video creator's page during a live stream or on demand video. They have to be participating in Facebook Stars.
How do I send Stars to a video creator on Facebook? To send Stars, go to a video creator's page. If they are participating in Facebook Stars, it is usually on a live or on demand video.
After watching a video for 5 to 10 seconds on your News Feed, you may see a pop-up in the live video.
This feature gives you the ability to buy and send Stars and leave a comment for the creator. Your Stars and comment will be visible to the video creator and anyone watching the live video.
Which video creators can I send Stars to? You can send Stars to participating video creators showing a next to Write a Comment You can send Stars on live gaming videos or other live videos featuring artists and creators.
If the star is sufficiently massive, the collapsing core may become hot enough to support more exotic nuclear reactions that consume helium and produce a variety of heavier elements up to iron.
However, such reactions offer only a temporary reprieve. Gradually, the star's internal nuclear fires become increasingly unstable - sometimes burning furiously, other times dying down.
These variations cause the star to pulsate and throw off its outer layers, enshrouding itself in a cocoon of gas and dust. What happens next depends on the size of the core.
Universe Learn About This Image. Stars Stars are the most widely recognized astronomical objects, and represent the most fundamental building blocks of galaxies.
Star Formation Stars are born within the clouds of dust and scattered throughout most galaxies. Black Holes. The Big Bang.
Helpful Links Organization and Staff. Astrophysics Fleet Mission Chart. Spacecraft Paper Models. Related Content Mysteries of the Sun.
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Average Stars Become White Dwarfs For average stars like the Sun, the process of ejecting its outer layers continues until the stellar core is exposed.
This dead, but still ferociously hot stellar cinder is called a White Dwarf. White dwarfs, which are roughly the size of our Earth despite containing the mass of a star, once puzzled astronomers - why didn't they collapse further?
What force supported the mass of the core? Quantum mechanics provided the explanation. Pressure from fast moving electrons keeps these stars from collapsing.
The more massive the core, the denser the white dwarf that is formed. Thus, the smaller a white dwarf is in diameter, the larger it is in mass! These paradoxical stars are very common - our own Sun will be a white dwarf billions of years from now.
White dwarfs are intrinsically very faint because they are so small and, lacking a source of energy production, they fade into oblivion as they gradually cool down.
This fate awaits only those stars with a mass up to about 1.Die Stars und ihre Geschichten finden Sie immer topaktuell auf mcintosh-anderson.com! Alle Stars, die besten Schnappschüsse und Fehltritte: mcintosh-anderson.com Die Star-News des Tages ⭐ Nachrichten der VIPs, aktuelle Prominews, die besten Bilder der Stars sowie Videos und Interviews finden Sie nur auf mcintosh-anderson.com Neuigkeiten aus der Welt der Stars und VIPs: Aktuelle Stories und die Top-News deiner Promis bei mcintosh-anderson.com Welche neuen süßen Bilder gibt es aus den Familien der Stars? Was hat der Lieblingsschauspieler im Interview gesagt? Wer über News, Partys und das Leben.